Cyber Security

        Proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary between the request made by clients, and a particular server for some services or requests for some resources. Many type of different proxy servers available that are put into use according to the purpose of a request made by the clients to the servers. The purpose of basic Proxy servers is to protect the direct connection of Internet clients and internet resources. The proxy server is prevents the identification of the clientís IP address when the client makes any request is made to any other servers.

Proxy Server key elements

  • Internet resources and Internet Client : In this method internet clients, Proxy servers also act as a shield for an internal network against the request coming from a client to access the data stored on the server. It makes the original IP address of the node remains hidden while accessing data from that server.

  • Protects true host identity: In this method, outgoing traffic appears to come from the proxy server rather than internet navigation. It must be configured to the specific application such as HTTPs or FTP.

  • Types Of Proxy Server

            There are many types of proxy servers available. The two most common types of proxy servers are forward and reverse proxy servers. The other proxy server has its own feature and advantages.

  • Reverse Proxy Server : The job of a reverse proxy server to listen to the request made by the client and redirect to the particular web server which is present on different servers.
  • Web Proxy Server : Web Proxy forwards the HTTP requests, only URL is passed instead of a path. The request is sent to particular the proxy server responds. Examples, Apache, HAP Proxy.
  • Anonymous Proxy Server : This type of proxy server does not make an original IP address instead these servers are detectable still provides rational anonymity to the client device.
  • Highly Anonymity Proxy : This proxy server does not allow the original IP address and it as a proxy server to be detected.
  • Transparent Proxy : This type of proxy server is unable to provide any anonymity to the client, instead, the original IP address can be easily detected using this proxy
  • CGI Proxy : CGI proxy server developed to make the websites more accessible. It accepts the requests to target URLs using a web form and after processing its result will be returned to the web browser. It is less popular due to some privacy policies like VPNs but it still receives a lot of requests also.
  • Suffix Proxy : Suffix proxy server basically appends the name of the proxy to the URL. This type of proxy doesnít preserve any higher level of anonymity. It is used for bypassing the web filters.
  • Distorting Proxy : Proxy servers are preferred to generate an incorrect original IP address of clients once being detected as a proxy server. To maintain the confidentiality of the Client IP address HTTP headers are used.
  • Tor Onion Proxy : This server aims at online anonymity to the userís personal information. It is used to route the traffic through various networks present worldwide to arise difficulty in tracking the usersí address and prevent the attack of any anonymous activities.
  • 12P Anonymous Proxy : It uses encryption to hide all the communications at various levels. This encrypted data is then relayed through various network routers present at different locations and thus I2P is a fully distributed proxy.
  • DNS Proxy : DNS proxy take requests in the form of DNS queries and forward them to the Domain server where it can also be cached, moreover flow of request can also be redirected.

  • How Proxy Server Works

            Every computer has its unique IP address which it uses to communicate with another node. Similarly, the proxy server has its IP address that your computer knows. When a web request is sent, your request goes to the proxy server first. The Proxy sends a request on your behalf to the internet and then collect the data and make it available to you. A proxy can change your IP address So, the webserver will be unable to fetch your location in the world. It protects data from getting hacked too. Moreover, it can block some web pages also.

    Need of proxy server

            Proxy server used to security purpose and protection of data and information.

  • Defeat Hackers : To protect organizations data from malicious use, passwords are used and different architects are setup, but still, there may be a possibility that this information can be hacked in case the IP address is accessible easily. To prevent such kind of misuse of Data Proxy servers are set up to prevent tracking of original IP addresses instead data is shown to come from a different IP address.
  • Filtering of Content : By caching the content of the websites, Proxy helps in fast access to the data that has been accessed very often.
  • Examine Packet headers and Payloads : Payloads and packet headers of the requests made by the user nodes in the internal server to access to social websites can be easily tracked and restricted.
  • To control internet usage of employees and children : In this, the Proxy server is used to control and monitor how their employees or kids use the internet. Organizations use it, to deny access to a specific website and instead redirecting you with a nice note asking you to refrain from looking at said sites on the company network.
  • Bandwidth savings and improved speeds : Proxy helps organizations to get better overall network performance with a good proxy server.
  • Privacy Benefits : Proxy servers are used to browse the internet more privately. It will change the IP address and identify the information the web request contains.
  • Security : Proxy server is used to encrypt your web requests to keep prying eyes from reading your transactions as it provides top-level security.

  • Password Attacks and type of password attack

            Password cracking is a one of the imperative phases of the hacking framework. Password cracking is a way of recuperate passwords from the information stored or sent by a PC or mainframe. The motivation behind password cracking is a assist a client with recuperating a failed authentication or recovering a password, as a preventive measure by framework chairmen to check for effectively weak passwords, or an assailant can utilize this cycle to acquire unapproved framework access.

    Password cracking is consistently violated regardless of the legal aspects to secure from unapproved framework access, for instance, recovering a password the customer had forgotten etc. This hack arrangement depends upon aggressors exercises, which are ordinarily one of the four types.

  • Non-Electronic Attacks : This is most likely the hackerís first go-to to acquire the target system password. These sorts of password cracking hacks donít need any specialized ability or information about hacking or misuse of frameworks. Along these lines, this is a non-electronic hack. A few strategies used for actualizing these sorts of hacks are social engineering, dumpster diving, shoulder surfing, and so forth.
  • Passive Online Attacks : An uninvolved hack is a deliberate attack that doesnít bring about a change to the framework in any capacity. In these sorts of hacks, the hacker doesnít have to deal with the framework. In light of everything, he/she idly screens or records the data ignoring the correspondence channel to and from the mainframe. The attacker then uses the critical data to break into the system. Techniques used to perform passive online hacks incorporate replay attacks, wire-sniffing, man-in-the-middle attack, and so on.
  • Active Online Attacks : This is perhaps the most straightforward approach to acquire unapproved manager-level mainframe access. To crack the passwords, a hacker needs to have correspondence with the objective machines as it is obligatory for password access. A few techniques used for actualizing these sorts of hacks are word reference, brute-forcing, password speculating, hash infusion, phishing, LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning, utilizing Trojan/spyware/keyloggers, and so forth.
  • Offline Attacks : Disconnected hacks allude to password attacks where an aggressor attempts to recuperate clear content passwords from a password hash dump. These sorts of hacks are habitually dreary yet can be viable, as password hashes can be changed due to their more modest keyspace and more restricted length. Aggressors utilize preprocessed hashes from rainbow tables to perform disconnected and conveyed network hacks.

  • Some practices protecting against password cracking

  • Perform data security reviews to screen and track password assaults.
  • Try not to utilize a similar password during the password change.
  • Try not to share passwords.
  • Do whatever it takes not to use passwords that can be found in a word reference.
  • Make an effort not to use clear content shows and shows with weak encryption.
  • Set the password change technique to 30 days.
  • Try not to store passwords in an unstable area.
  • Try not to utilize any mainframeís or PCís default passwords.
  • Unpatched computers can reset passwords during cradle flood or Denial of Service assaults. Try to refresh the framework.
  • Empower account lockout with a specific number of endeavors, counter time, and lockout span. One of the best approaches to oversee passwords in associations is to set a computerized password reset.
  • Ensure that the computer or serverís BIOS is scrambled with a password, particularly on devices that are unprotected from real perils, for instance, centralized servers and PCs.

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